Re-EngineeringoftheDamagedBrainandSpinalCord isdedicatedtoTetsuoKanno,M. D. ProfessorofNeurosurgery Bypresenting theoriginal papers thatmakeupthis thefeaturesofthelocalmedicallandscapeinthe- third supplement we wish to make a further contri- gionswheretheyareenacted. Whatismore,progr- bution to the issue of functional rehabilitation, this sivenew?ndingsmustbealsosubjectedtoafrequent soimportantandfascinatingmodernareaofresearch revision. Ontopofthis,itshouldnotbeforgottenthat inthe?eldofneurosciences. Thecongresspaperswe even when committal therapy guidelines are c- haveselectedconstituteagoodre?ectionofthetrans- sistentlyapplied,thereareconsiderablevariationsin disciplinary objectives. The literature references are therangeofpotentialcomplicationsandintheo- designedasaguidetoleadtheinterestedreadertoa comeofprospectivecontrolledmulti-centreandmul- deeperandmoredetailedunderstandingoftheindi- nationalstudiesontheissueofqualitymanagement. vidualissues. Functionalrehabilitationhasbeenanoriginaltask The demand for "evidence-based medicine" is well ofneurosurgeryfromtheveryoutset. The1990shave justi?ed; however, it rapidly comes up against the enteredtheannalsofbrainresearchasthe"Decadeof limitsoffeasibility,especiallywherecontrolledthe- theBrain". Sincethentherehasbeenaneverstronger peuticstudiesareconcerned. TheCochrancollection growthofneuroscienti?cinterestworldwide,accom- of high-quality evidence-based healthcare databases paniedbysubstantial?nancialengagement. Thishas hasthusfarbeenofnohelptousindrawingupthe- primarily resulted in advances in basic neuro- peutic recommendations for the re-engineering of biologicalandneurophysiologicalresearchandalsoin brain and spinal-cord lesions. Today as ever, the thegrowthofneuroscienti?cknowledgeaboutbasic opinion of experts and empirically based medical mechanismsformotor control,paincontrol,aware- treatment and posttraumatic neurorehabilitation ness, cognition, learning and memory. The conse- continuetooccupyanindispensablepositionforthe quencemustbetoensurethattheadvancesmadeinthe everydayclinicalpracticeofneurosurgicalandneu- neuroscienti?cresearchareaareadequatelyexpanded traumatological therapies. Promising adjunct - intopracticalneurosurgicalcareandre-engineeringof proachesincludeneuropharmacology,forcascadesof brainandspinalcordlesionsandtoensureuponnew molecular interactions are known to be underlying approaches. Following this a fundamental path will activity-dependent plasticity and skills learning, as resultinanimprovedandmoree%ocientpreventionin many of these processes involve the major tra- thefuture,themeasuresthatstandrightatthefore- mitters. Furthermore,biologicalinterventionsby- front of all rehabilitation principles, meaning that ingendogenousneuronsandgliaaswellasexogenous conventionalconceptsmustbemodi?edtokeeppace stemcells,bone-marrowcells,macrophages,andother withthemoretask-speci?c,intensive,andprogressive types may promote the regeneration of nerve cells, demands. In this connection a series of guidelines, tissue, and neural circuitry. Class one studies have recommendations, and expert opinions and also beenmade,andnowclasstwostudieshavebeeni- algorithms have been elaborated by national and tiated, for example in connection with acute spinal international expert panels and multidisciplinary as- cord injury (SCI). The clinical application of fu- sociationsfortheacutemedicalcareofpatients.
The Paris Agreement on Climate Change adopted on December 12, 2015 is a voluntary effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In order to reach the goals of this agreement, there is a need to generate electricity without greenhouse gas emissions and to electrify transportation. An infrastructure of SPCSs can help accomplish both of these transitions. Globally, expenditures associated with the generation, transmission, and use of electricity are more than one trillion dollars per year. Annual transportation expenditures are also more than one trillion dollars per year. Almost everyone will be impacted by these changes in transportation, solar power generation, and smart grid developments. The benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions will differ with location, but all will be impacted. This book is about the benefits associated with adding solar panels to parking lots to generate electricity, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and provide shade and shelter from rain and snow. The electricity can flow into the power grid or be used to charge electric vehicles (EVs). Solar powered charging stations (SPCSs) are already in many parking lots in many countries of the world. The prices of solar panels have decreased recently, and about 30% of the new U.S. electrical generating capacity in 2015 was from solar energy. More than one million EVs are in service in 2016, and there are significant benefits associated with a convenient charging infrastructure of SPCSs to support transportation with electric vehicles. Solar Powered Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles: A Sustainable Development aims to share information on pathways from our present situation to a world with a more sustainable transportation system with EVs, SPCSs, a modernized smart power grid with energy storage, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and better urban air quality. Covering 200 million parking spaces with solar panels can generate about 1/4 of the electricity that was generated in 2014 in the United States. Millions of EVs with 20 to 50 kWh of battery storage can help with the transition to wind and solar power generation through owners responding to time-of-use prices. Written for all audiences, high school and college teachers and students, those in industry and government, and those involved in community issues will benefit by learning more about the topics addressed in the book. Those working with electrical power and transportation, who will be in the middle of the transition, will want to learn about all of the challenges and developments that are addressed here.
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