This research focuses on the technical issues that are critical to the adoption of high-energy-producing lithium Ion batteries. In addition to high energy density / high power density, this publication considers performance requirements that are necessary to assure lithium ion technology as the battery format of choice for electrified vehicles. Presentation of prime topics includes: * Long calendar life (greater than 10 years)* Sufficient cycle life* Reliable operation under hot and cold temperaturesSafe performance under extreme conditions* End-of-life recycling. To achieve aggressive fuel economy standards, carmakers are developing technologies to reduce fuel consumption, including hybridization and electrification. Cost and affordability factors will be determined by these relevant technical issues which will provide for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries for application in future generations of electrified vehicles.
This book gathers the proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods, which was held on March 19-21 in College Station, Texas, USA. The different chapters, written by leading experts, reports on the most recent developments in flow physics modelling, and gives a special emphasis to industrially relevant applications of hybrid RANS-LES methods and other turbulence-resolving modelling approaches. The book addresses academic researchers, graduate students, industrial engineers, as well as industrial R&D managers and consultants dealing with turbulence modelling, simulation and measurement, and with multidisciplinary applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), such as flow control, aero-acoustics, aero-elasticity and CFD-based multidisciplinary optimization. It discusses in particular advanced hybrid RANS-LES methods. Further topics include wall-modelled Large Eddy Simulation (WMLES) methods, embedded LES, and a comparison of the LES methods with both hybrid RANS-LES and URANS methods. Overall, the book provides readers with a snapshot on the state-of-the-art in CFD and turbulence modelling, with a special focus to hybrid RANS-LES methods and their industrial applications.
Mr. Laurie is entitled to speak with authority on all that pertains to pigments and their preparation, for not only is he well known in purely chemical circles as an able experimenter, but he has had practical experience of colour-making in his capacity of scientific adviser to the firm of Madderton & Co. In this excellent little book the author attempts to give to those who use paints some knowledge of the methods of preparation and the properties of the materials they work with. The experimental method is adopted, and by means of some very simple apparatus the student is taught how to investigate the permanency of a colour, and to perform experiments intended to make clear to him why, of two apparently similar pigments, one may be used in safety, while the other must in many cases be avoided. The chapters on "process" work deserve careful attention from those interested in the reproduction of diagrams, and the book should be in the hands of all artists who are anxious to hand on their creations with undiminished brilliancy for the admiration of future generations.
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