This research focuses on the technical issues that are critical to the adoption of high-energy-producing lithium Ion batteries. In addition to high energy density / high power density, this publication considers performance requirements that are necessary to assure lithium ion technology as the battery format of choice for electrified vehicles. Presentation of prime topics includes: * Long calendar life (greater than 10 years)* Sufficient cycle life* Reliable operation under hot and cold temperaturesSafe performance under extreme conditions* End-of-life recycling. To achieve aggressive fuel economy standards, carmakers are developing technologies to reduce fuel consumption, including hybridization and electrification. Cost and affordability factors will be determined by these relevant technical issues which will provide for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries for application in future generations of electrified vehicles.
Preface "In aircraft design, efficiency is determined by the ability to accurately and rel- bly predict the occurrence of, and to model the development of, turbulent flows. Hence, the main objective in industrial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is to increase the capabilities for an improved predictive accuracy for both complex flows and complex geometries". This text part taken from Haase et al (2006), - scribing the results of the DESider predecessor project "FLOMANIA" is still - and will be in future valid. With an ever-increasing demand for faster, more reliable and cleaner aircraft, flight envelopes are necessarily shifted into areas of the flow regimes exhibiting highly unsteady and, for military aircraft, unstable flow behaviour. This undou- edly poses major new challenges in CFD; generally stated as an increased pred- tive accuracy whist retaining "affordable" computation times. Together with highly resolved meshes employing millions of nodes, numerical methods must have the inherent capability to predict unsteady flows. Although at present, (U)RANS methods are likely to remain as the workhorses in industry, the DESider project focussed on the development and combination of these approaches with LES methods in order to "bridge" the gap between the much more expensive (due to high Reynolds numbers in flight), but more accurate (full) LES.
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